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Bibliographies

Bibliographies

One of the most essential components of any research project or Independent Study Unit (ISU) is the bibliography. This makes sure you give credit to those works you used for your own research. 

A bibliography is a list of all the sources you used when researching an essay, research paper or assignment.  To avoid plagiarism, whenever you use other people’s ideas or words you need to credit the source from which the information was obtained.  Every source that has been used should be listed in the Bibliography or Works Cited page(s).

General Guidelines for preparing a bibliography

  • Cite all your sources to prevent plagiarism. For more about plagiarism see Plagiarism.org
  • Gather citation information as you are doing the research, while you have the source on hand
  • Alphabetize all citations by author’s last name
  • If there is no author, use the first main word of the title
  • Note punctuation, include all required information and follow instructions exactly
  • If a specific style of bibliography (MLA vs. APA) has been specified by your school use that
  • Always start the bibliography on a new page
  • The bibliography is placed at the back of your work

Information for your Citation

As you are researching keep track of all books, encyclopedias, articles or Internet websites you use.  When you are ready to write your final bibliography or works cited page, you will need bibliographic information to describe the sources you consulted. Different types of sources require different types of information.

For example, if you are citing a book you will need:

  • Author(s) of book
  • Title of book
  • Edition
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Date of publication (year)

You can use the library catalogue to find most of the information you need for your citation. Below is a chart showing you the different types of bibliographic information you need to gather, depending on the types of sources you used.

Citation Style

Once you know how to do a bibliography and have the right information about your sources, it is just a matter of putting it in the right style.

Citation style MLA vs. APA - Modern Language Association (MLA) and American Psychological Association (APA) are the two formats commonly required in secondary schools and universities.  Your teacher will tell you what format to use.  MLA guidelines are generally used for organizing sources for English, language and literature essays and papers.  APA format is usually used to reference sources for social science, such as psychology or sociology essays and papers.


INTERNET/WORLD WIDE WEB
Author known, date given
MLA Yadav, Sid.  “Facebook – The Complete Biography.” [Online]. Available http://mashable.com/2006/08/25/facebook-profile/ (accessed July 14, 2008.)
APA Yadav, S. (2008). Facebook –The complete biography. Retrieved July 14, 2008 from http://mashable.com/2006/08/25/facebook-profile/
Author unknown
MLA “Gangs”. [Online]. Available http://www.hamiltonpolice.on.ca/HPS/PreventingCrime /gangindex.htm (accessed July 14, 2008.)
APA Gangs. (2008). Retrieved July 14, 2008 from http://www.hamiltonpolice.on.ca/HPS/PreventingCrime/gangindex.htm

BASIC BOOK FORMAT
One author
MLA Crook, Marion. Out of the darkness: teens and suicide. Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press, 2003.
APA Crook, M. (2003). Out of the darkness: teens and suicide.  Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press.
Two or Three Authors
MLA Houston, Susan E. and Alison Prentice. Schooling and scholars in nineteenth century Ontario. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988.
APA Houston, S. E. and Prentice, A. (1988). Schooling and scholars in nineteenth century Ontario. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Unknown Author
MLA Go ask Alice.  New York: Simon & Schuster Children’s Pub, 2006.
APA Go ask Alice. (2006). New York: Simon & Schuster Children’s Pub.

ARTICLES
Unsigned Encyclopedia
MLA Wounded Knee Massacre.” Encyclopedia of Native American Wars & Warfare. 2005.
APA Wounded Knee Massacre. (2005). W. B. Kessel (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Native American Wars and Warfare (p.349). New York: Book Builders Incorporated.
Magazine
MLA Petrou, Michael. “Are we helping Haiti?” Maclean’s. 14 April 2008: 16-22.
APA Petrou, Michael. (2008).  Are we helping Haiti? Maclean’s, 14(121), 16-22.
Newspaper
MLA Ogilvie, Megan. “Melanoma rate soars among U.S. young women”. Toronto Star. 11 July 2008: A1.
APA Ogilvie, M. (2008, July 11). Melanoma rate soars among U.S. young women.  Toronto Star, p. A1.

eBOOKS
MLA Fisher, Kimball. Leading Self-directed Work Teams : A Guide to Developing New Team Leadership Skills. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2000. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). EBSCO. Web. 9 Sept. 2011.
APA Fisher, K. (2000). Leading Self-directed Work Teams : A Guide to Developing New Team Leadership Skills. McGraw-Hill Professional. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

If you need more examples about how to cite information consult the following guides:

For further help, you can use the (Son of) Citation Machine, an interactive web tool, to format your citations in MLA, or APA style.  To generate a citation, select the format and the type of resource (book, web document, magazine article, etc.) you need and complete the Web form with information from your source.